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What is Hypnosis?
Hypnosis: Fact and Fiction
Is Hypnosis Dangerous?
Deepening the Hypnotic Trance
Testing the Hypnotic Trance
Rules of the Mind
The Power of Creative Imagination
How to Set Realistic Goals
You Can Learn to Relax
Glossary of Terms
Finding a Hypnotherapist Near You
Certification: Licensed Professionals
Hypnosis Training For Professionals
Hypnosis Learning Modules
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As a submarine glides beneath the surface of the ocean, the only contact the crew has with the outside world is by way of instruments within the ship. The radar screen, sonic depth finder, radio receiver and other equipment tell the crew what is going on outside. This information is picked up by receptors, such as the radar and radio antennas located on the outer surface of the submarine.
As we move about in our environments, we function much as the submarine. This may seem wrong to you. For example, you may look across the way and see a red automobile. Actually this is not true. The automobile is not "red" and you do not "see" it. What takes place is this: All the light "falling" on the automobile is absorbed by the surface of the automobile, except the light we call red. The red light is reflected by the car. This reflected red light strikes your eye, resulting in an electro-chemical reaction in that sense organ. Neurons are excited which transmit electro-chemical messages to the visual centers of your brain. A neural pattern is set up that represents "red car."
In a similar way, you react to changes in your other sense organs and not to external objects. This may sound like "splitting hairs" to you, or you may feel its true, but so what. As we continue, you will see how important it is.
Sense organs, such as your eyes, ears, skin, etcetera that are found on the surface of your body are known a "receptors." They are "receivers" of information from the outside world. Each receptor is connected by a nerve to your high nervous system, the spinal cord and brain.
All around you is your environment; it is full of objects and people. They all affect you in some way. The person next to you may spill something on you, or she may give you a pleasant smile. These things that affect you are called "signals." The liquid spilled on you, is a signal. The pleasant smile is a signal.
A signal brings about a change in one or more of your receptors. The change in your receptors is called a "stimulus." This term is easy to remember because the change in your receptor "stimulates," or starts, a nerve impulse on its way to your brain.
As we encounter all kinds of stimulus situations, messages (nerve impulses) are received, evaluated, integrated and stored by our higher nervous system. Other messages in turn are sent out to various muscles and glands of your body. These muscles and glands are called "effectors." The change brought about in your effectors is called the "response."
All observable mental responses, without exception, can be reduced to a single phenomenon -- muscular movement. Whether its a child smiling at its mother, a young lady trembling at the first thought of love, or Isaac Newton discovering universal laws and writing them down on paper -- the ultimate reaction in all cases is muscular movement. But, you may say, most cerebral activity is expressed in words. But words are only combinations of sounds produced by muscular movements of the larynx and mouth cavity. Thus, all external manifestations of mental activity can be reduced to muscular movement.
This stimulus-response (S-R) action is the foundation of all your behavior. Everything you do is a matter of stimulus and response. Suppose you hear your name. The sound of your name (the signal) brings about a change (the stimulus) which sends a nerve impulse to your brain and on through your brain to your muscles. Your muscles (the effectors) then turn you toward the sound. This turning is the response.
If you bite into something good and ask for more, this is what takes place: The food (the signal) causes a change (the stimulus) in your tongue. The change (the stimulus) sends nerve impulses to and through your brain and out to your jaw, lips, lungs, and vocal muscles. These function to say the words, "Please give me some more." This is the response. The action from stimulus to response is automatic. Most of what we do is done for us automatically. The majority of the business of living has little to do with what we call "thinking." In deciding to lift a cup of coffee, this is all we do consciously. The rest is done for us automatically by reflex action. We do not decide what muscles we need to use to lift the cup of coffee. We do not consciously regulate the exact degree of tension need by the muscles involved. All this is done for us at an unconscious level.
Your stimulus-response arcs account for all of your behavior. In order to form new responses or alter old ones, we must change our stimulus-response arcs. Ivan Pavlov was the first to make a scientific study of our stimulus-response arcs. In his original experiment it was found that a dog salivated as he ate meat, but did not salivate when a bell was rung. However, when the bell was rung just before the dog was fed, and this procedure was repeated a few times, an unexpected thing took place.
|The instructions presented are from the personal collections and writing library of Mr. Robert E. Cutter, who died December 13, 2001, while in the process of completing the transfer of his work to the internet. These are offered as educational instruction only. The purpose of this instruction is the effective learning and use of hypnotic techniques for vocational or avocational self-improvement. This instruction is not offered as a substitute for, nor as a supplement to, any form of therapy concerned with physical, mental, nervous or emotional illness. Robert E. Cutter served as web consultant for American Psychotherapy and Medical Hypnosis Association for three years. His hypnosis education came through the training he provided at a school he owned in the 1950's in Los Angeles, California, along with his wife who preceded him in death in 1980. Robert Cutter was not a psychologist and did not practice psychotherapy, but his interest in hypnosis motivated him to provide free resources materials for others who wanted to learn to use the power of their minds to improve well being and health-related issues.|
Michael A. Robinson, R.N.- BC Psychiatry
Licensed Texas State Nursing Board Registered Nurse
Texas State Nursing Board Certified in Psychiatry
In Honor and Memory of Robert E. Cutter, B.S. 1923-d.2001
From the Writings of Robert Cutter's Self Hypnosis Center
About Feelings Network
Texas . 78526
Phone (956) 203-0608
Hypnosis Education Center. All Rights Reserved.
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